featured sponsor:
    AUTHOR:     Kissell, Mary Lois.
    TITLE:      Yarn and cloth making; an economic study; a college and
                   normal schools text preliminary to fabric study, and a
                   reference for teachers of industrial history and art in
                   secondary and elementary schools, by Mary Lois Kissell.
    PUBL.:      New York, The Macmillian company,
    FORMAT:     xxvii, 252 p. illus., plates, diagrs. 20 cm.
    DATE:       1918
    SUBJECT:    Textile industry
                Weaving
                Spinning
    LANGUAGE:   ENGLISH
    CONTENTS:   Bibliograpy at end of each chapter; General bibliography: p.
                   207-215; Books for juveniles: p. 227-228.
    RID #:      ocm02754111

Basketry Weaves, Loom Weaves

...loom weavings are to be distinguished from basketry plaiting and basketry weaving, which do not require a loom during their construction. Plaiting is begun by placing two or three loose rushes or other long strands on the ground in parallel position and crossing them by others with an interlacing, and then adding more strands to the left, the right, the near and the far sides. The possible progression in four directions distinguishes plaiting from weaving, which progresses in one direction only by the introduction of a weft strand which crosses a parallel series of warp strands. In plaiting there is no distinct warp or weft, as the strands plait in four directions. It belongs to a large group of basketry techniques which includes basketry weaving, but in none is an implement necessary to hold the strands during plaiting.... loom weaving of softer materials, which because of their flexibility require a frame, or loom, to secure the parallel warp strands during the weaving.

Weaving Defined

...A true definition will picture the row of parallel warp strands with the uniting weft strand moving back and forth across the warp. Such a definition might read: Weaving is a process which unites a series of parallel strands, or warps, by a crossing strand, or weft, which may interlace, wrap, or twine as it moves back and forth across the warp strands to form an expanded surface....

To form this warp and weft structure the warp strands, or foundation, must be arranged on the loom in a parallel series, a procedure termed "loom mounting;" while the weft strand, or filling, must be passed through the parallel warp strands to unite them, a procedure termed "wefting." Each of these activities includes three processes. For loom mounting, the warp strands must be measured off into equal lengths and arranged in a parallel series, a process called "warping." The strands must be secured to the beam or beams, a process called "beaming." The weft strand when uniting the warp strands passes over and under certain warp strands, but in its second crossing it passes over and under the strands which before it went under and over. This would be a tedious process were it not for a mechanical device which raises and lowers the alternate warp strands across the entire width of the loom, thus making "sheds" for the passage of the weft. These sheds were prepared during the warping, making ready the warp strands to be connected with the shedding device, a process termed "heddling;" while the process giving motion to the heddles for opening the sheds is called "shedding." The movement of the weft through the shed is "picking;" and the beating close the weft strands is "battening."

....All of these processes require specific devices for warp manipulation or weft manipulation. At first very simple implements were employed, but as time moved on they became more perfect and better fitted to the task in hand.