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    AUTHOR:     Seiler-Baldinger, Annemarie.
                   Systematik der Textilen Techniken. English
    TITLE:      Classification of textile techniques / Annemarie Seiler-
                   Baldinger.
    PUBL.:      Ahmedabad, India : B.U. Balsari on behalf of the Calico
                   Museum of Textiles,
    FORMAT:     xxiv, 114 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
    DATE:       1979
    OTHER NAME: Calico Museum of Textiles.
    SUBJECT:    Weaving--Patterns
                Textile industry
    LANGUAGE:   ENGLISH
                GERMAN
    CONTENTS:   Bibliography: p. 107-114.
    NOTES:      Translation of Systematik der textilen techniken.
    RID #:      ocm07263161

Techniques of Fabric Production, First Part - Primary Textile Techniques

As used here, the term "fabric" encompasses all the products of textile techniques which consist of basic elements (threads or groups of threads) connected to one another purely mechanically.

A. Fabric Production with a Single Continuous Thread (Meshwork)

The fabric is formed by one single thread which is worked into meshes at definite and repeated intervals. Meshes are the interworking elements and hence the designations "mesh work" or "mesh fabric."

a. Mesh Formation with a Continuous Thread of Limited Length

The meshes are formed by the leading end of the thread whereby the entire thread is drawn through the mesh just formed. Therefore the thread must be of limited length and has to be replaced periodically. Meshwork structures with limited lengths of thread can be classified into three main groups: Linking, Looping, Knotting. The feature common to all the three groups is that three methods of working are possible: back and forth in the same plane, spiral or circular.

I. Linking
1. Simple Linking (figure 3)
The thread is stretched over a length corresponding to the required fabric width and is losely wrapped around itself in such a fashion that regularly spaced meshes of the simplest shape are formed. This is the simplest method of mesh formation. The second second row of linking is formed at the lowermost point of the first row. Such structures are net-like and very elastic. The meshes have a diamond shape. (like a sideways chain-link or cyclone fence MB)

fig 3

2. Linking and Twisting (figure 4)
Double or multiple linking is obtained if the thread, instead of being simply linked to the meshes, is coiled one or more times around the lowermost points of the previous row. This method increases the fabric strength.

fig 4

5. Vertical Linking (figure 7)
Linking can also be done vertically instead of horizontally. (like a chain-link or cyclone fence MB)

fig 7

B. Fabric Production with Thread Systems

Two threads or systems of threads are employed. Depending upon the method of working, thread arrangement and interworking, (The arrangement of the threads in the fabric, ie, the crossing of the threads or thread groups MB) two main groups can be differentiated; Half-Plaiting and Plaiting.

a. Half-Plaiting
Two threads or two or more groups of threads are used in such a fashion that one thread or one of a group is always the active element. These active elements are used to fix the other group of threads which remain passive throughout the process. An interchange of the two groups is not possible. (See Larry's comment "use one color for the spokes, and at least one other color for the rings" MB) The forms of interworking are to some extent identical to the basic forms in methods employing a single thread (e.g. linking and looping with inlay). In such cases the difference between the two methods is only in the use of two or more threads or thread groups, i.e. in the method of fabric production. Innumerable and invariegated forms of half-plaiting are known, which are mainly and frequently used for basketry. The important sub-groups are: Splitting, Wrapping, Coiling, Twining.

I. Splitting

II. Wrapping
Passive threads arranged parallel to one another are fixed through wrapping of active threads running perpendicular or oblique to the first set. Variations are obtained by skipping individual elements of the passive set, or by bringing together a number of the passive elements. (like at the center of Larry's "Circular Pattern" MB) There is always a crossing of the active and passive elements.

1. Looped Wrapping (figure 47) The passive threads are held in place by the active elements in loops. (Use of the words "looped" and "loops" create confusion here because "looping" is the accepted term for grouping the various knitting and crochetting processes. I believe that the use of this stems from a poor translation from the original German manuscript MB)

fig 47

2. Knotted Wrapping (figure 48) Knots are used instead of loops to fix the passive elements.

fig 48

b. Transitional Forms to Plaiting and Advanced Techniques of Fabric Manufacture
The transition forms to plaiting or braiding occur whenever an active element is introduced in half-plaiting: additionally and subsequently. This additional active element interlaces with the passive or active elements in the original system. On the other hand, techniques such as wrapping or twining which employ a tensioned warp belong to the advanced techniques of fabric manufacture (cf. Warp Fabrics).

c. Plaiting (Braiding) In plaiting, the fabric is formed by the crossing of elements (genuine interlacing - one over, one under) of two or more systems of yarn. The operations can be performed in one or the other system at will. Their functions (active and passive) are interchangeable.

Depending on the number of systems used, plaiting can be in two or more directions. Plaiting in two directions can be sub-divided into: Oblique or diagonal plaiting; right-angled plaiting; three strand plaiting; oblique twining and Macrame'. The important forms of interlacing in two directional plaiting are identical to those in weaving.

I. Plaiting in Two Directions
The forms of interlacing (over one, under the other MB) in two directional plaiting are analogous to those in weaving (cf. Weaving).

1. Diagonal Plaiting (figure 63)
The two directions of plaiting are at an angle of 60 degrees to the edges of the fabric. The crossings are genuine interlacings. (but for some reason, figure 63 was mis-drawn with 90 degree angles...? Imagine it stretched out vertically. MB)

fig 63

The threads are fixed at one end. Diagonal plaiting is technically the simplest form of plaiting and permits relatively few variations.

2. Right-angled Plaiting (figures 64 & 65) The two directions of plaiting are parallel or perpendicular to the edges of the fabric. Here again, the crossings are genuine interlacings.

fig 64

In the strict sense of right angle plaiting, the two systems are interchangeable in their functions. However in a special form, the wicker basket weave (figure 65), one system is continuously active and the other more or less passive. Wicker basket plaiting is hence closely related to half-plaiting, particularly to wrapping, coiling and twining. Mechanical aids are not used and the variations are not many.

fig 65

3. Multistrand Plaiting (figure 66 b-c)
Multiple strand plaits are formed by oblique crossing of threads in two directions. However, the individual threads form spirals in mutually opposite directions and very often they do not all lie in the same plane. Tubular braids can be formed around a core or inlay. Depending on the number of threads used and their arrangement, highly complicated interlacings can be obtained. From a technical point of view, these can be considered as special forms of diagonal plaiting.

fig 66

4. Oblique Twining (figure 67 - 68) In the simplest form of this type, the plaiting is diagonal or a combination of diagonal and right-angled.

fig 67

In the second case there are more than two directions of plaiting. As such, this method can be considered as an intermediate stage to multidirectional plaiting.

fig 68

II. Multi-Directional Plaiting
At least three thread systems are necessary for multi- directional plaiting. If more than three systems are used, the threads are partly fixed. Hence, these methods can be viewed as a transitional stage to the advanced techniques of fabric manufacture. Several groupings are possible based on the method of interlacing or structure: elements of balanced interlacing; interlaced elements drawn through in the third, forth, etc. directions; open plaiting and tight plaiting. Multi-directional plaiting is a highly specialized final form of plaiting and offers few possibilities for variations.

1. Three-Directional Plaiting (figure 70)

fig 70

2. Four-Directional Plaiting (figure 71)

fig 71

Techniques of Fabric Production, Second Part - Advanced Textile Techniques

A. Warp Methods

B. Plait Weaving

C. Weaving