AUTHOR: Tortora, Phyllis G. TITLE: Understanding textiles / Phyllis G. Tortora. EDITION: 2nd ed. PUBL.: New York : Macmillan ; London : Collier Macmillan, FORMAT: ix, 454 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. DATE: 1982 SUBJECT: Textile fibers Textile fabrics Textile industry ISBN: 0024208701 LANGUAGE: ENGLISH CONTENTS: Bibliography: p. 413-420. NOTES: Includes index. RID #: ocm07577669 8206
Fabrics may be created by plaiting together yarns or strips of fabrics. The components are interlaced in a diagonal pattern over and under one another to form a flat or tubular fabric.... (p 197)
The Creation of Woven Fabrics
Fabrics can be woven from yarns on a simple hand loom or on a highly complex, totally automated power loom. In either case, the fabric that is produced will be made by interlacing one yarn with another. The lengthwise direction yarns in a woven fabric are called the "warp yarns" or "ends." Crosswise yarns are called "filling" or "weft yarns" or "picks." Warp and weft yarns interlace with each other at right angles.
Weaving requires that the warp yarns be held under tension. Having stretched out one set of yarns, the weaver then takes a second yarn and interlaces it with the warps. The simplest interlacing is made by moving the filling over the first warp, under the second, over the third, and under the forth, and so on. In the second row the filling moves under the first warp, over the second, under the third, and so on. The third row repeats the pattern of the first, and the forth row repeats the pattern of the second row. Known as a plain weave, this is the simplest form of weaving....
Inventive weavers improvised a means of speeding up the procedure of raising and lowering warp yarns. Alternate rows of warps were placed over a "shed rod" or stick that lifted them above the level of their neighboring yarns. This formation of raised and lowered yarns is called the "shed." The bobbin could be thrust across the entire width of the cloth through the shed.... The alternate set of warp yarns was threaded through a series of string loops that were tied to another rod. This rod could raise the second set of yarns past those on the shed rod, and now by thrusting the bobbin under this second set of yarns that had been raised by an upward pull on the rod, the filling interlaced with an alternate set of yarns.... The rod that held the second set of yarns was called a "harness;" the loops were called "heddles." (p 197-199)